2 Plus 4 Agreement

In addition, Germany has recognized the inviolability of its existing borders. Poland, in particular, had called for commitments to this effect. The issue of Oder-Neisse was resolved under a separate agreement, but did not become an integral part of the two-plus-four treaty. With regard to unified Germany, Article 1 states that «its external borders are the borders of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic and are final from the date of entry into force of this Treaty. Confirmation of the finality of the borders of unified Germany is an essential element of the peaceful order in Europe. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was, more than anyone else, the leader who was most afraid of a reunified Germany. During this period, the prospect of the end of the German division depended only on a thread. «Genscherism» was a derogatory term that was coined at the time in London, but was also used elsewhere. Despite all the rhetorical attacks and diplomatic crossfire, Genscher was able to allay fears. However, the last fears were not put aside until six months after the signing of the «two plus four» agreement: on 4 March 1991, the Soviet Union became the last contracting party to ratify the agreement, signalling the final victory of «cenoism». On that day, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, who pays tribute to this man, does not seem to describe a superlative: today Hans-Dietrich Genscher is honoured at the FDP headquarters in Berlin as «architect of unity». The Treaty on the Final Settlement with respect for Germany, it is said, represents one of the great moments in diplomatic history. It is the official name of the agreement between the victors and the defeated parties of the Second World War, which ended 45 years of German division.

As Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany, Genscher signed the important «two plus four» agreement on 12 September 1990, as it is informally known. With archival recordings, contemporary documents and largely unknown CIA files, the documentary takes a behind-the-scenes look at these important negotiations 30 years ago. We are talking to politicians and diplomats involved in the controversies over German unity and the agreements reached at the time, including former US Secretary of State James Baker and French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas, chief negotiators Robert Zoellick, Dieter Kastrup, Bertrand Dufourcq and Philip John Weston, as well as advisers to Francois Mitterand, Helmut Kohl and Margaret Thatcher. And members of the last East German government, such as Prime Minister Lothar de Maiziére, Foreign Minister Markus Meckel and Thilo Steinbach, tell us how they experienced the unification process in the days leading up to the end of their country. Radio time: On 2 August 1945, the Potsdam Agreement, proclaimed at the end of the Potsdam Conference, was concluded, among other things, on the initial conditions under which the World War II Allies were to rule Germany. A temporary German-Polish border, known as the Oder-Neisse line, has in theory attributed most of the German provinces in eastern Germany to Poland and the Soviet Union as part of this «temporary border». The German population in these areas has been displaced or killed. These agreements were provisional and the agreement provided that the situation would be concluded by «a peace settlement for Germany accepted by the German government if an appropriate government is formed» (Potsdam Agreement 1.3.1).

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